Development of Indian Constitution for JKSSB, KAS & SSC Exam: In this Article, we are going to discuss about the Development of Indian Constitution for JKSSB, KAS & SSC Exam, which is very important topic for all other competitive exams.
Development of Indian Constitution for JKSSB & SSC Exam
Constitution of India – Features
- Indian Constitution is the most lengthy and detailed constitution of the world.
- Constituent assembly take 2 years, 11 months and 18 days in framing it.
- Originally there were 395 Articles ‘divided into 8 Schedules.
- Now there are 449 Articles divided into 12 Schedules.
- It is both rigid and flexible.–some parts can be l amended by simple majority, while rest need 2/3rd majority.
- It include details to meet peculiar problem.
HISTORY OF CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
- Under ‘cabinet Mission Plan-1946, a constituent assembly was to be formed for framing
- Strength of the constituent assembly was 385 members. 292 representative were from 11 governors provinces and 93 from representatives of Indian states.
- Constituent assembly met for the first time on 9th December 1946.
- Sachindanath Sinha became its temporary Chairman.
- Rajinder Prasad then elected as the chairman of the constituent assembly.
- The vice president of the constituent assembly was Prof. Harendra Coomar Moolgegee, former vice Chancellor of Calcutta university and a prominent Christian from Bengal who also seved as the chairman of the minority committee of the constituent assembly.
- Constituent assembly on 29 August 1947 appointed the drafting committee With Dr. B. R Ambadkar as the chairman.
- Other members were N. Gopalswamy Ayanger, Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayar, Syyed Mohd. Saadulla, B.L.Mitter (later replaced by Mr. Madhava Rao), Dr. D.P.Khaitan replaced on death by Sri. T.T.Krishnamachari) etc.
- The draft constitution was submitted on 21 Feb. 1948, On 29 Nov. 1949, it was adopted and enacted.
- Some provisions were valid from this date, rest became functional from 26 Jan, 1950.
- The constitution was finally signed by the members of constituent assembly on 24 January, 1959; the last day of assembly.
SOURCES OF CONSTITUTION
The constitution of India has used the Government of India act 1935 as its original base. It has modified it and borrowed lot of other concepts from various countries.
Borrowed from different sources
- British—lawmaking procedure, rule of law, lower house more powerful, Bicameral legislature, model of parliamentary form of government, post of PM, Speaker in Lok Sabha.
- US–Independence of Judiciary, ‘Judicial review, Fundamental rights, position of vice-president in Rajya Sabha.
- Irish-“Directive principles, method of Presidential, elections, Nomination of members of Rajya Sabha.
- Japan–Law on which Supreme court functions.
- French—idea of Liberty, equality and fraternity.
- USSR–Fundamental duties, five year plans.
- Canadian–Federation with strong centre, placing residual powers with centre. ‘
- Weimar — Suspension of fundamental rights during emergency.
- Australian constitution–~ Idea of Concurrent list, manage of Preamble, provisions regarding trade and commerce.
POLITICAL FEATURES OF INDIA
- Parliamentary government.
- Federation with strong centre.
- Secular state.
- Universal adult franchise.
- Bicameral Legislature.