Meaning and Definition of Social Stratification for JKSSB Supervisor Exam: In this Article, we are going to share information regarding, “Meaning and Definition of Social Stratification for JKSSB Supervisor Exam” which is one of the important topic of all the competitive exams in Jammu and kashmir service selection board.
Meaning and Definition of Social Stratification for JKSSB Supervisor Exam.
Introduction & Meaning of Social Stratification
Differentiation is the law of nature. True, it is in the case of human society. Human society is homogeneous but heterogeneous. Men differ from one other, in many respects.
Human beings equal so far as their bodily structure is concerned. But the physical appearance of individuals, intellectual, moral, philosophical, mental, economic, religious, political and other aspects are different.
No two individuals are exactly alike. Diversity and inequality are inherent in society. Hence, society is everywhere stratified. ‘
All societies arrange their members’ in terms of superiority, inferiority, and equality. The vertical scale of evaluation, this placing of people in strata, or layers, is called stratification. Those in the top stratum have more power, privilege and prestige than those below.
Society Compares and Ranks Individuals and Groups: Members of a group compare different individuals, as when selecting a mate, or employing a worker, or dealing with a neighbor. They also compare groups such as castes, races, colleges, athletic teams. These comparisons are valuations, and when members of a group agree, these Judgments are social evaluations.
All societies differentiate members in terms of roles and all societies evaluate roles differently. Some roles are regarded as more important or socially more valuable than others. The persons who performed the more highly esteemed roles are rewarded more highly. Thus stratification is simply a process of interaction of differentiation whereby some people come to rank higher than others.
Definition of Social Stratification:
- Ogburn and Nimkoff: “The process by which individuals and groups are ranked in a more or less enduring hierarchy of status is known as stratification.
- Gisbert: “Social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups of categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination.”
- Melvin M. Tumin: Social stratification refers to “arrangement of any social group or society into a hierarchy of positions that are unequal with regard to power, property, social evaluation, and psychic gratification.”
- Lundberg: “A stratified society is one marked by inequality, by differences among people that are evaluated by them as being ‘lower’ and ‘higher”’.
- Raymond W. Murry: “Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into ‘high’ and ” lower’ social units”.
The Universality of Social Stratification
Social stratification is ubiquitous. In all societies there is social differentiation of the population by age, sex, and personal characteristics. The roles and privileges of children differ from those adults; and those of good hunters or warriors differ from those of the rank and file. It is not customary to speak of a society as stratified if every individual in it has an equal chance to succeed to whatever statuses are open.
Strictly speaking, there are no purely equalitarian societies, only Societies differing in degree of stratification. Even Russia which dreamt of a ‘classless society’ could not any more than any other society.
The criterion of rank have changed along with values of society. P.A. Sorokin wrote in his Social Mobility’ that ‘Unstratified society with real equality of its members, is a myth which has never been realized in the history of mankind.’
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